Ali Sultan AlRifai has completed his MSc. in Oral Histology and Biology at age 35 years from College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. He has completed PhD in Gross Anatomy at age 41years from College of Medicine, University of Baghdad. He is a director of Anatomy Branch and member in Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University. He is a supervisor for many MSc students. He has published more than 14 papers in reputed journals. Now, he is a reviewer of about 14 articles in OMICS Publishing Group, USA.
Background & Objectives: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a commonly used drug for the treatment of malignant cancers. Approximately 80% of patients undergoing 5-FU treatment suffer from gastrointestinal mucositis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chamomile extract on the pathogenesis of 5-FU induced intestinal mucositis in Albino rat.rnrnMaterials & Methods: In current study forty females Albino rats, weighing 220-280 g were used in the study. For the induction of mucositis, 60 mg/kg of 5-FU was administered intraperitoneally to each animal in the study group on day 0, and 40 mg/kg was administered on day 2. The control animals were intraperitoneally injected by normal saline in the same manner and dose like 5-FU on day 0 and 2. Then the rats in each group were randomly divided into two groups: Distilled water treated group and chamomile extract treated group (10 animals each). A volume of distilled water equal to chamomile extract was given by intragastric gavage tube, while the other group was gavaged with chamomile extract at a dose of (100 mg/kg) two times daily. The treatment with distilled water or the chamomile extract was initiated on day 5 and the experiment continues for twelve days. The body weight for each rat was measured and then the animals were sacrificed on day 8 and 12 (five animals each). In each experiment, one centimeter of proximal jejunum was removed for histopathological, intestinal morphometry, and immunohistochemical analysis using Ki-67 and Bcl-2 immunolabeling. rnrnResults: Chamomile can protect the jejunum from fluorouracil-induced cytotoxicity and attenuate or decrease the associated injury. The chamomile in 5-FU/chamomile group causes significant increase in villi length, crypt depth, number of goblet cells, and Ki-67 and Bcl-2 immunexpression in comparison with 5-FU/water group at day 8. But longer duration of taking chamomile can cause cytotoxic and damaging effect to the jejunum. rnrnConclusion: Chamomile can protect the jejunum from fluorouracil-induced mucositis, it attenuates the associated injury if it’s taken for short duration, but the reverse can occur if it’s taken for longer period.rn
Abeer Ahmed Kassem has completed her PhD (2008) from Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Egypt. Currently she is an Assistant Professor in Faculty of Pharmacy, Princess Nourahbint Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia. She has published about 8 papers in reputed journals and two books. She served as a reviewer in reputed journals, e.g. Int. J. Pharm. and Drug Delivery. She taught pharmacy undergraduate students (2008 till now), for different courses, e.g. Solid Dosage Forms, Hospital Pharmacy and Biopharmaceutics. She was the Manager of the quality assurance unit, Faculty of Pharmacy and Drug Manufacturing, Pharos University in Alexandria, Egypt (2008-2010).
Resveratrol (Res), a polyphenolic phytoalexin, had shown a promising therapeutic efficacy towards treatment of periodontal disease in vitro. This work aims to develop Res microbeads with strong mucoadhesion using thiolated alginate (TA) for local treatment of periodontal pockets. TA was synthesized by conjugating sodium alginate (A) with thioglycolic acid. Product was evaluated by IR and DSC. Both A and A: TA Res micro beads with different ratios were prepared by ionotropic gelation method. Formulations were evaluated regarding their entrapment efficiency (%EE), swelling index (SI), in vitro drug release and kinetics. Selected formula was examined for its mucoadhesion by ex vivo wash-off method, surface morphology using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and stability against light. Clinical evaluation is running. Formation of TA was confirmed. % EE for all formulations ranged from 83.72 to 104.54%. Results revealed a significant lower SI for TA rich formulation (A/TA 1:1) along with slower release rate and zero-order kinetics, in addition to powerful mucoadhesion; 26% remaining of microbeads after 1 h, compared to 2% for A microbeads. SEM micrographs showed a rough surface with drug precipitation. The formula maintained its %EE after 5 h exposure to direct sunlight. A/TA 1:1 mucoadhesive Res microbeads could be exploited as a prolonged drug release devices for intrapocket application.